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Di Zi Gui (dizigui) or "STUDENTS' RULES"

by Li Yuxiu, During the Reign of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi (1661-1722)
English & Vernacular (Modern Spoken) Chinese Translation
by Feng Xin-ming  

《弟子規》

清康熙年間(1661-1722)李毓秀著
馮欣明英語及白話文翻譯





      原文 Text

                        白話文
    Vernacular (Modern Spoken) Chinese


            英語 English



1. 弟子規,聖人訓 學生的規矩,是聖人的訓誨。 "The Rules for Students" are the Sage’s teachings.
2. 首孝弟1, 次謹信 首先要對父母好注2 和對長者尊敬,然後要恭謹注3 和誠信。 First be good to parents note 2 and respect elders; next be reverent note 3 and trustworthy.
3. 泛愛眾,而親仁 廣泛地愛眾人;而且親近仁人。 Love everyone and become close with the kind-hearted.
4. 有餘力,則學文 如果有剩餘的力量,就學習書本。 If there’s energy left over, then study books.
5. 右總敘 右邊 (以上) 是總結。 To the right (the preceding) is the summary.


6.


父母呼,應勿緩


父母呼喚時,回應不要緩慢。




When parents call, don’t be slow to answer.
7. 父母命,行勿懶 父母發出命令時就要執行,不要懶惰。 When parents give an order, act, don’t be lazy.
8. 父母教,須敬聽 父母教導時,要恭敬地聽。 When parents teach, one must listen respectfully.
9. 父母責,須我承 父母責備時,我要承受(接受)。 When parents reprimand, one must accept.
10. 冬則溫,夏則清 冬天要溫暖,夏天要清涼。注4 In winter keep warm; in summer keep cool.note 4
11. 晨則省,昏則定 早晨要省察自己,黃昏要安定下來。注5 In the morning think over your conduct; in the evening settle down.note 5
12. 出必告,返必面 出外必定告訴父母,回來必定見父母一面。 When leaving one must tell one’s parents; upon returning one must see one's parents face-to face.
13. 居有常,業無變 起居有定時,事業不改變。 There should be regularity in one’s daily life, and no change in one’s career.
14. 事雖小,勿擅為 雖然是小事,都不能任意擅為。 Though a matter may be small, don’t act arbitrarily.
15. 苟擅為,子道虧 如果任意擅為,兒子應該遵循的正道便虧損了。 If one acts arbitrarily, the code that a son ought to follow gets damaged.
16. 物雖小,勿私藏 東西雖小,不要自私地藏起來。 Though a thing may be small, don’t selfishly hoard it.
17. 苟私藏,親心傷 如果自私地藏起來,父母就會傷心。 If one selfishly hoards, the parents’ hearts will be hurt.
18. 親所好,力為具 父母所喜歡的,就努力去擁有。 What parents like, make an effort to possesss.
19. 親所惡,謹為去 父母所厭惡的,就謹慎地把它清除掉。 What parents despise, carefully get rid of.
20. 身有傷,貽親憂 身體損傷了,令父母擔憂。 Injury to one’s body brings parents worry.
21. 德有傷,貽親羞 品德損傷了,令父母羞恥。 Injury to one’s character brings parents shame.
22. 親愛我,孝何難 如果父母愛我,要我行孝(對父母好)並不困難。 When parents love me, it is easy to be good to parents.
23. 親憎我,孝方賢 父母憎惡我而我仍然行孝,才是真正的賢德。 When parents detest me, then it’s truly virtuous to be good to parents.
24. 親有過,諫使更 父母有過失,要勸諫他們,使他們變更。 When parents are doing something that’s wrong, counsel them to make them change.
25. 怡吾色,柔吾聲 我的面色要愉快,我的聲音要溫柔。 Make my expression pleasant, and soften my voice.
26. 諫不入,悅復諫 如果勸諫不被接納,父母心情愉快時再勸諫。 If the counsel is not accepted, wait until parents are happy then counsel them again.
27. 號泣隨,撻無怨 再跟著下來就是號哭,就算被鞭撻也不埋怨。 Weeping and wailing should follow, and beatings are borne without complaint.
28. 親有疾,藥先嘗 父母有疾病,吃的藥我要先嘗試(看看它是否煮得恰當)。 When parents fall ill, one tastes the medicine first (to see if it's been brewed to the proper degree),
29. 晝夜侍,不離床 日夜都侍候,不離開床邊。 And attend day and night, not leaving the bed.
30. 喪三年,常悲咽 守喪期三年,常常悲傷地啼咽。注6 One mourns for thee years, often sobbing sadly.note 6
31. 居處變,酒色絕 居住的地方改變,謝絕喝酒和女色。 The place of living should change, and one should abstain from wine and sex.
32. 喪盡禮,祭盡誠 喪禮做盡禮節,祭拜致盡誠懇。 At the funeral there should be the utmost decorum; at memorial services there should be the utmost sincerity.
33. 侍死者,如事生 侍奉死者,好像侍奉在生的一樣。 Serve the dead like serving the living.
34. 兄道友,弟道恭 兄長應該友善,弟弟應該恭敬。 The proper way for the older brother is friendliness; the way for the younger brother is respect.
35. 兄弟睦,孝在中 兄弟的和睦便是孝(對父母好)了。 When brothers are harmonious, that is in itself being good to parents.
36. 財物輕,怨何生 看輕財物,怨忿就不會產生。 When money and material things are taken lightly, how can resentment arise?
37. 言語忍,憤自泯 言語忍讓,憤怒就自然會泯沒。 When words are tolerated, anger naturally dissipates.
38. 或飲食,或坐走 無論是飲食、就坐或走路, In eating and drinking, and in walking and sitting down,
39. 長者先,幼者後 長者行先,年幼者行後。 The elder person goes first; the junior person goes after.
40. 長呼人,即代叫 長者呼喚人,就立即代他叫喚。 When an elder is calling someone, immediately call that person for the elder.
41. 人不在,己先到 如果叫的人不在,就自己先報到。 If that person is not there, go to the elder yourself.
42. 稱尊長,勿呼名 稱呼尊長,不要叫名字。 When addressing a respected elder, don’t call him by name.
43. 對尊長,勿見能 在尊長面前,不要炫耀自己。 In front of a respected elder, don’t show off.
44. 路遇長,疾趨揖 路上遇到長者,要趕快上前鞠揖。 When meeting an elder on the road, quickly go up and bow.
45. 長無言,退恭立 長者沒話說,就退開,恭敬地站立。 If the elder has nothing to say, retreat and stand respectfully.
46. 騎下馬,乘下車 騎馬時要下馬,坐車時要下車。 Get off if riding a horse, get out if in a car.
47. 過猶待,百步餘 長者走過去了,要仍然等待,直至他走了百餘步。 Wait even after the elder passes, for a hundred steps or more.
48. 長者立,幼者立 長者站立,幼者就要站立。 When the elder person stands, the junior person stands.
49. 長者坐,命乃坐 長者坐下,幼者要等待長者命令才坐下。 When the elder person sits, only upon being ordered does the junior person sit.
50. 尊長前,聲要低 尊長前面,說話聲音要低。 In front of a respected elder, one’s voice has to be low,
51. 低下聞,為非宜 但是低到不能聽聞就不適宜。 But if it’s too low to be heard, then that’s not suitable.
52. 進必趨,退必遲 進去見長者要趕快,離開長者時要遲慢。 Going into an elder one must hurry; leaving an elder one must be slow.
53. 問起對,視勿移 長者問話就站起來作應對,視線不要移動。 When asked a question one rises and answers, without moving one’s gaze.
54. 事諸父,如事父 侍候各個父輩的長者,好像侍候父親一樣。 Serve the elders of your father's generation like serving your father.
55. 事諸兄,如事兄 侍候各個兄輩的長者,好像侍候兄長(哥哥)一樣。 Serve the elders of your big brother's generation like serving your big brother.
56. 右入則孝出則弟 右邊 (以上) 是進入家裡就行孝(對父母好),走出家外就要對長者尊敬。 To the right (the preceding) is being good to parents inside the family and being respectful to elders outside.


57.


朝起早,夜眠遲


早晨早些起來,晚上遲些才睡覺。注7




In the morning rise early; at night go to sleep late.note 7
58. 老易至,惜此時 老年很容易到來,要珍惜這時刻。 Old age arrives readily; value this time.
59. 晨必盥,兼漱口 早晨必定洗手和漱口。 In the morning one must wash the hands, plus rinse the mouth.
60. 便溺回,輒淨手 大小便回來,必定把手弄乾淨。 After returning from urination and defecation, always clean the hands.
61. 冠必正,紐必結 帽子一定要端正,紐子必定扣起來。 The hat must be on straight; the buttons must be done up.
62. 襪與履,俱緊切 襪子和鞋子,都要穿得緊切。 The socks and shoes should all be on snugly.
63. 置冠服,有定位 放置帽子和衣服,要有既定的地方。 For putting hats and clothes, there should be set places.
64. 勿亂頓,致汗穢 不要胡亂放,引致汗積污穢。 Don’t set them down in a disorderly manner, making a sweaty mess.
65. 衣貴潔,不貴華 衣服可貴的是清潔,不是華麗; In clothes value cleanliness, not fanciness.
66. 上循分,下稱家 要遵循自己的身份,也要適合家庭的經濟情況。注8 First, follow one’s station in life; second, suit the family’s financial situation.note 8
67. 對飲食,勿揀選 對飲食不要挑剔揀選。 With food and drink don’t be picky.
68. 食適可,勿過則 進食適可而止,不要吃過多。 Eat just enough; don’t eat excessively.
69. 年方少,勿飲酒 年紀還小,不要喝酒。 While still young, don't drink alcohol.
70. 飲酒醉,最為醜 喝酒醉了,樣子是最醜的。 Being drunk is most ugly.
71. 步從容,立端正 走路要不荒不忙,站立要端正。 Walk relaxed; stand straight.
72. 揖深圓,拜恭敬 鞠揖要又深又圓,跪下叩拜要恭敬。 Bow deep and round; when kneeling to pay homage do so reverently.
73. 勿踐或,勿跛倚 不要踏門檻(閾),不要一只腿倚靠著站立。 Don’t step on the threshold; don’t stand leaning on one leg.
74. 勿箕踞,勿搖卑 不要坐在地上兩腿伸直打開,不要搖擺下部。 Don’t sit with legs straight and apart; don’t wave the bottom.
75. 緩揭簾,勿有聲 慢慢地把簾子揭起,不要有聲。 Open curtains slowly, without noise.
76. 寬轉彎,勿觸稜 寬闊地轉彎,不要觸碰到稜角。 Turn turns widely, without hitting the corners.
77. 執虛器,如執盈 拿著空的器具,好像拿著滿的一樣。 Hold empty vessels like holding full ones.
78. 入虛室,如有人 走入空的房室,好像有人在裡面一樣。 Enter empty rooms as if someone is there.
79. 事勿忙,忙多錯 事情不要急忙,急忙就會很多錯誤。 Don’t hurry when doing things, or there will be many mistakes.
80. 勿畏難,勿輕問 不要害怕困難,不要輕視發問。注9 Don’t fear difficulties; don’t look down upon asking questions.note 9
81. 鬥鬧場,絕毋近 打鬥鬧事的場地,絕勿走近。 Scenes of fighting and disturbances, do not ever go near.
82. 邪僻事,絕勿聲 邪惡歪僻的東西,絕勿說出來。 Evil deviant things, don’t ever say.
83. 將入門,問誰存 即將進入門戶時,要問誰在裡面。 When about to enter through a door, ask who is there.
84. 將上堂,聲必揚 即將進入廳堂時,要聲音響亮地報到。 When about to enter a hall, one must call out one's arrival.
85. 人問誰,對以名 別人問你是誰,就把名字告訴他。 When people ask who is there, answer with your name.
86. 吾與我,不分明 只說是我,是不夠明白的。 “Me” and “I” don’t make anything clear.
87. 用人物,須明求 用別人的物件,須要明確地求問。 When using other people’s things, one must clearly ask.
88. 倘不問,即為偷 倘若不先求問,那就是偷。 If one doesn’t ask, then it is stealing.
89. 借人物,及時還 借別人的物件,及時歸還。 When borrowing other people’s things, return them on time.
90. 人借物,有勿慳 別人向你借物件,有的話不要慳吝。 When other people borrow things from you, if you have them don’t be stingy.
91. 凡出言,信為先 凡說話時,誠信第一。 Whenever one speaks, trustworthiness comes first.
92. 詐與妄,奚可焉 騙詐和妄亂說話,怎可以呢?。 Lying and absurd wild talk, how can one engage in such things?
93. 話說多,不如少 話說得多,不如說少些。 Talking a lot is not as good as talking less.
94. 惟其是,勿佞巧 只說事實,不要說虛浮不實的花言巧語。 Say only what is true, don’t be glib or tricky.
95. 刻薄詞,穢汙詞 刻薄的言語,骯臟的言語, Cutting and disdainful words, dirty and filthy words,
96. 市井氣,切戒之 鄙俗的風氣,一定要戒除。 Such vulgar airs, definitely get rid of them.
97. 見未真,勿輕言 看到的東西還未確定是否真實時,不要輕率地發出言論。 When still unsure of what you are seeing, do not lightly speak on it.
98. 知未的,勿輕傳 知道的東西未還確定是否正確時,不要輕率地傳播。 When still unsure of what you know, don’t lightly spread it.
99. 事非宜,勿輕諾 事情的條件還未適當時,不要輕率地承諾。 If conditions aren’t favorable, don’t lightly promise.
100. 苟輕諾,進退錯 如果輕率地承諾了,前進去做和退卻不做都是錯誤。 If one lightly promises, then both going forward to do it and backing off from doing it are wrong.
101. 凡道字,重且舒 凡說話時,字句都要莊重和舒松。 Whenever you say something, say it with weight and relaxation,
102. 勿急疾,勿模糊 不要急速,不要模糊。 Not hurriedly or quickly, nor blurred and unintelligibly.
103. 彼說長,此說短 這個說長,那個說短。 This one gossips about this; that one gossips about that;
104. 不關己,莫閒管 不關涉到自己,就不要多管閒事。 If it doesn’t concern yourself, don’t participate.
105. 見人善,即思齊 見到別人優良,就要想想怎樣追上。 On seeing others being good, think of equaling them.
106. 縱去遠,以漸躋 縱使相距很遠,可以漸漸進步。 Even if far below them, you can gradually improve.
107. 見人惡,即內省 見到別人惡劣,就要檢查自己。 On seeing others being bad, inspect yourself.
108. 有則改,無加警 如果自己有就要改正,沒有就要加強警惕。 If like them then correct it; if not then be vigilant.
109. 惟德學,惟才藝 只有品德和學問,只有才能和技藝, Only in virtue and learning, and in ability and skill,
110. 不如人,當自勵 比不起別人,就應當勉勵自己。 If not as good as others, then one should spur oneself on.
111. 若衣服,若環食 如果是衣服、環境、或食用, If it’s in clothing and attire, or housing and food,
112. 不如人,勿生戚 比不起別人,不要悲愁。 That one is not as good as others, don’t be sad.
113. 聞過怒,聞譽樂 如果聽到(自己的)過錯就憤怒,聽到贊頌就高興, Becoming angry upon hearing (one's own) faults and happy upon hearing praise,
114. 損友來,益友卻 損害你的朋友就會到來,有益於你的朋友就會退卻。 Will cause harmful friends to come and beneficial friends to leave.
115. 聞譽恐,聞過欣 如果聽到贊頌就恐懼,聽到(自己的)過錯就歡欣, Becoming fearful upon hearing praise and happy upon hearing (one's own) faults,
116. 直諒士,漸相親 正直誠信的人士就會漸漸跟你親近。 Will cause upright and honest gentlemen to gradually draw close.
117. 無心非,名為錯 無意的過犯,叫做錯誤。 Doing wrong unintentionally is called making a mistake;
118. 有心非,名為惡 蓄意的過犯,叫做罪惡。 Doing wrong intentionally is called committing an evil.
119. 過能改,歸於無 能夠改正錯過,就等於沒有犯。 If one corrects what one has done wrong, then it’s as if it hasn’t happened.
120. 倘掩飾,增一辜 如果掩飾錯過,就增加一項罪行。 If one covers up, then one adds to one’s trespass.
121. 右謹而信 右邊 (以上) 是既恭謹又誠信。注10 To the right (the preceding) is being reverent and trustworthy.note 10


122.


凡是人,皆須愛


凡是人,都須要愛。


All who are human, one must love.
123. 天同覆,地同載 天空把我們同樣地覆蓋,土地把我們同樣地承載。 Heaven covers us equally; Earth bears us equally.
124. 行高者,名自高 品行高尚的人,名望自然高。 People with high conduct naturally have high reputations;
125. 人所重,非貌高 人們所重視的,並非相貌高貴。 What people value is not high looks.
126. 才大者,望自大 才能大的人,聲望自然大。 People with great ability naturally have great fame;
127. 人所服,非言大 人們所佩服的,並非言語大。 What people respect is not great words.
128. 己有能,勿自私 自己有才能的話,不要自私。 If one has ability, one shouldn’t be selfish.
129. 人有能,勿輕訾 別人有才能的話,不要輕易貶低別人。 If other people have ability, one shouldn’t denigrate them.
130. 勿諂富,勿驕貧 不要對富人諂媚,不要對窮人驕傲。 Don’t fawn on the rich; don’t be arrogant to the poor.
131. 勿厭故,勿喜新 不要厭棄故舊的,不要只喜愛新的。 Don’t despise the old; don’t favor the new.
132. 人不閒,勿事搞 別人沒空閒,就不要用事情攪擾他。 If people don’t have time, don’t bother them with matters.
133. 人不安,勿話搞 別人不安寧,就不要用說話攪擾他。 If people are not at peace, don’t bother them with words.
134. 人有短,切莫揭 別人有短處,切勿揭露宣揚。 When people have shortcomings, definitely don’t publicize them.
135. 人有私,切莫說 別人有私隱,切勿說出來。 When people have secrets, definitely don’t say them.
136. 道人善,即是善 說別人的善行,就是善行。 Speaking of others’ good deeds is in itself a good deed.
137. 人知之,愈思勉 別人知道了,會感到勉勵。 When others learn of it, they become more encouraged.
138. 揚人短,即是惡 傳揚別人的短處,就是惡行。 Publicizing other people’s shortcomings is in itself evil.
139. 疾之甚,禍且作 令到別人非常憎恨,而且災禍會到來。 People hate it very much, and disaster arises.
140. 善相勸,德皆建 大家互相勸勉行善,品德便大家都建立起來。 Admonishing each other to do good builds up everyone’s virtue.
141. 過不規,道兩虧 別人犯錯過時你不規勸,道德便雙方都虧損。 Not dissuading another from doing wrong damages both parties’ character.
142. 凡取與,貴分曉 凡是給與或拿取,重要的是要把事情說得清楚。 When taking and giving, making everything clear is what's important.
143. 與宜多,取宜少 給與別人適宜多些,拿取於別人適宜少些。注11 It's better to give much and take little.note 11
144. 將加人,先問己 即將把事物加之於別人,要先問問自己。 When about to do unto others, first ask yourself;
145. 己不欲,即速已 如果不想同樣的事物加於自己,就立刻停止不做。 If you don’t want it, then stop immediately.
146. 恩欲報,怨欲忘 恩典要報答,仇怨要忘記。 One wants to repay kindness and forget grudges.
147. 報怨短,報恩長 報怨是短,報恩是長 Repaying grudges is short; repaying kindness is long.
148. 待婢僕,身貴端 對待侍婢和僕人,自己是貴端的。注12 In dealing with maids and servants, one is of high station.note 12
149. 雖貴端,慈而寬 雖然自己是貴端的,但是要仁慈和寬容。 Though of high station, one must be kind and forgiving.
150. 勢服人,心不然 用勢力來使別人屈服,別人會心裡不服。 Using force to make people submit doesn’t make their hearts submit.
151. 理服人,方無言 用道理來使別人屈服,別人才會沒有怨言。 Using reason to make people submit, only then are there no words (of discontent).
152. 同是人,類不齊 同樣都是人,但是種類不一樣。 All are human, but their types differ.
153. 流俗眾,仁者希 庸俗的人眾多,仁慈的人稀少。 Most belong to the unrefined; the truly kind-hearted are rare.
154. 果仁者,人多畏 真正仁慈的人,人們多數怕他。 A truly kind-hearted person is feared by most people;
155. 言不諱,色不媚 他的言談不怕觸犯別人,他的容顏不會諂媚別人。 He is not afraid of his words causing offense; his expression is not fawning.
156. 能親仁,無限好 能夠親近仁慈的人,會得到無限好處。 To be able to become close with the kind-hearted is infinitely good.
157. 德日進,過日少 品德會日益進步,過失會日益減少。 One’s virtue will daily advance; one’s errors will daily lessen.
158. 不親仁,無限害 不親近仁慈的人,會帶來無限的禍害。 Not becoming close with the kind-hearted is infinitely harmful;
159. 小人進,百事壞 卑鄙低劣的人會進來,甚麼事情都會敗壞。 Lowly people will come and everything will turn bad.
160. 右汎愛眾而親仁 右邊 (以上) 是既廣泛地愛人又親近仁慈的人。 To the right (the preceding) is loving everyone and becoming close with the kind-hearted.


161.


不力行,但學文


如果不努力於行為,只學習書本,




If one doesn’t work hard at conduct, but only studies books,
162. 長浮華,成何人 便會滋長虛浮的華麗,這樣會變成怎樣的人呢? Then one attains superficial finery—what kind of person is that?
163. 但力行,不學文 只努力於行為,而不學習書本, If one only works hard at conduct, but does not study books,
164. 任己見,昧理真 就會一味憑靠自己的見解,對真理蒙昧。 Then one relies only on one’s own views, and remain ignorant of true reason.
165. 讀書法,有三到 讀書的辦法,有三個到: The way to study requires three things coming together:
166. 心眼口,信皆要 心到、眼到、口到,三樣都需要。 Heart, eyes and mouth, are all necessary.
167. 方讀此,勿慕彼 剛開始讀一本書,就不要想念著另一本。 When you’ve just begun reading one book, don’t yearn for another;
168. 此未終,彼勿起 這本未讀完,那本不要開始。 When the first book hasn’t been finished, don’t start another one.
169. 寬為限,緊用功 界限要放得寬闊,功夫要用得緊密。 Set wide limits; apply tight efforts.
170. 功夫到,滯塞通 功夫到位,滯塞便會開通。 With proper effort, obstacles will be overcome.
171. 心有疑,隨札記 心裡有疑問,就立刻寫札記。 When there is doubt, note it down right away,
172. 就人問,求確義 以便問人,尋求正確的意義。 So as to ask people and get the true meaning.
173. 房室清,牆壁淨 房室要清潔,牆壁要乾淨。 The room should be clean; the walls, clear;
174. 几案潔,筆硯正 桌子要潔淨,筆和墨硯要擺正。 The desk, spotless; the pen and inkwell, straight.
175. 墨磨偏,心不端 墨磨得有偏差,是因為心裡不端正。 If the ink is ground unevenly, the heart is not upright;
176. 字不敬,心先病 寫的字不尊敬,是因為心裡有病。 If the words are not respectful, the heart has first fallen ill.
177. 列典籍,有定處 列放書本,有固定的地方。 Books should be set out in a regular place.
178. 讀看畢,還原處 書本讀看完畢,就歸還原來的地方, After reading, return them to their original place.
179. 雖有急,卷束齊 雖然有急事,也要先把書本卷束整齊。 Though there may be an urgent matter, roll and tie them properly,
180. 有缺壞,就補之 如果有缺壞,就立刻修補。 And if there’s damage, repair it immediately.
181. 非聖書,屏勿視 不是聖賢的書本,摒棄它,不要看。 Books not of the sages, reject them; don’t look.
182. 蔽聰明,壞心志 它會掩蔽你的聰明,損壞你的心志。 They cloud the intellect and corrupt one’s heart and aspiration.
183. 勿自暴,勿自棄 不要自暴自棄(不要暴虐自己,不要拋棄自己)。 Don’t abuse yourself; don’t give up on yourself.
184. 聖與賢,可馴致 聖潔和賢德,可以漸漸地達到。注13 What is saintly and virtuous, can be gradually attained.note 13
185. 右行有餘力則以學文 右邊 (以上) 是:致力於行為後還有剩餘的力量,就用来學習書本。 To the right (the preceding) is: after achieving right conduct, if there’s energy left over then use it to study books.
186. 弟子規終 弟子規終。 Student’s Rules end.




Notes
- 文言文翻譯的原則 - Principles of Translating Classical Chinese
- 關於各《弟子規》網站之間的文本差異



- On Textual Discrepancies Among the Different Di Zi Gui Websites

1. ^ “弟”這裡讀作 "ti" 而不是 "di",跟“悌”通。 1. ^ Here the character is pronounced "ti" and not "di", and is the same as the character .
2. ^ “孝”應該譯為“對父母好”而不是“子女的虔誠”。(詳) 2. ^ Xiao should be translated as "being good to parents", not "filial piety". (Details)
3. ^ “謹”這裡的意思是“恭謹”,並非“謹慎”。《弟子規》所教授的恭謹,是一個崇高的心態,雖包括但遠遠超越了謹慎。(詳)

3. ^ Jin here means "reverent" as in gongjin, not "careful" as in jinshen. What Di Zi Gui teaches is a lofty state of mind, one that includes but is far above merely being "careful". (Details)
4. ^ 很多文本用冰字旁的“凊”而不是水字旁的“清”,那麼句子就變為把父母的床被溫暖起來或清涼下去。(詳)

4. ^ Qing with the "ice radical" instead of Qing with the "water radical" is used in many texts; the sentence would then be referring to warming up and cooling the parents' bed. (Details)
5. ^ 很多學者把這句解釋為“早上向父母問安,晚上為父母整頓床被”。(詳)

5. ^ Many scholars take this sentence to mean asking after parents in the morning and putting in order the parents' bed in the evening. (Details)
6. ^ 我認為,守喪三年過多。《孝經》裡孔子只說過“喪不過三年”而並不是喪必要三年。而且孔子同時說,“無以死傷生”。守喪三年之長很多時誤事,變成了以死傷生:文天祥就是剛考了狀元,被皇帝看中,正要重用以改革時弊的時候,父親過世,便要辭職回鄉守孝三年,回來時已是奸臣攬權,蒙古侵略,宋朝正在走向滅亡了。正式守孝可能三至十二個月就夠了。

6. ^ I think mourning for three years is too long. In The Classic of Xiao, Confucius said that "mourning should be no longer than three years", not necessarily for three years. Moreover, he said at the same time "not to let dying injure the living". Formally mourning for three years can ruin important matters, such that dying injure the living. For example, Wen Tian-Xiang had just become First Imperial Laureate at the Civil Service Exams and was going to be entrusted by the Emperor with government reform when the father died. Wen had to resign and go home to mourn for three years. When he returned corrupt ministers had firm control, the Mongols were invading, and the Song Empire was heading towards extinction. Perhaps three to twelve months of formal mourning is enough.
7. ^ 健康起見,我認為這句應該改為“朝起早,夜即眠”。(詳)

7. ^ For reasons of health, I think this verse should be changed to: "In the morning rise early; at night go immediately to sleep." (Details)
8. ^ “稱家”是特別用語,意思是“適合家庭的經濟情況,出自《禮記·檀弓上》:“子游問喪具,夫子曰:稱家之有亡(無)。”

8. ^ Cheng jia 称家 is a special term meaning "to suit the family's financial situation". The term comes from the chapter "Tan Gong - First Part" in the ancient classic Li Ji (Book of Etiquette) where, in answer to a question about burial articles, Confucius said, "They should suit the family's financial situation."
9. ^ 我認為“輕”這裡是作動詞用,是“輕視”的意思,而不是副詞即“輕易”,因為那樣句子的意思就會變成“不要輕易發問”,而當然我們希望學生們,其實所有人們,都多一點發問。

9. ^ I consider qing to be a verb here meaning "to look down upon" as in qing shi. I don't think qing is being used as an adverb as in qing yi i.e. "lightly", since that would make the verse mean "don't lightly ask", and of course we would like students, actually all persons, to ask more questions.
10. ^ 如上注3,“謹”這裡的意思是“恭謹”,並非“謹慎”。(詳)

10. ^ As in note 3 above, jin here means "reverent" as in gongjin, not "careful" as in jinshen. (Details)
11. ^ 我認為,雖然想法是慷慨,用意良好,但是“與宜多,取宜少”老是給別人多,給自己少,是不公平的,不適宜市場的運作,違反等價交換的原則。社會的本質是互利、雙贏,所以,我認為應該把這句改為“與如多, 得不少”。(詳)

11. ^ I think that, although the underlying idea is a laudable generosity and an entirely good intention, "better to give more and take less" is unfair, is not suited to the operation of markets and is contrary to the principle of exchange of equal values. The essence of society is mutual benefit and "win-win"; therefore I think this verse should be changed to: "If one gives much, one won't receive little". (Details)
12. ^ “身貴端”:今日“端貴的主人”和“下賤的婢僕”那種想法已經被雇主在雙方自願的情況下聘請僱員這個概念取代。僱員是在雇主的指令下工作,來換取金錢的。所以,除了金錢,僱員從雇主那裡所需要獲取的,就是明確的規格和指令。我提議把這句改為“待僱員,規令明”。

另外,雇主跟僱員這個人倫關係要求雇主誠信交易,包括準時和依照原先議定支付薪酬。所以下一句便是:“薪準時,照議定。”


12. ^ Shen Gui Duan 身貴端 or "of high station": today this concept of a master of "high station" and a servant of "low station" has been replaced by the concept of an employer hiring, on the basis of mutual free will, an employee on the basis of mutual voluntarism. The employee performs work under the employer's direction in exchange for money. Therefore, besides money, what the employer owes to the employee are clear standards and directions. I suggest changing this verse to "In dealing with employees, standards and directions must be clear."

Also, the relationship-defined obligations of employer to employee demand that the employer deals with the employee on the basis of trustworthiness, honesty and integrity, and that includes paying on time and according to the original agreement. So the next verse should be: "Pay on time, follow the agreement."

13. ^ “馴”這裡是古代用法,“漸漸”的意思。見《辭海》,上海1989年版,第1284頁。

13. ^ Xun here is used as one of its older meanings: "gradually". See Ci Hai, Shanghai 1989, p. 1284.


 
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