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Di Zi Gui (dizigui) or "STUDENTS' RULES"

by Li Yuxiu, During the Reign of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi (1661-1722)
English & Vernacular (Modern Spoken) Chinese Translation
by Feng Xin-ming  

《弟子规》

清康熙年间(1661-1722)李毓秀著
冯欣明英语及白话文翻译





      原文 Text

                        白话文
    Vernacular (Modern Spoken) Chinese


            英语 English



1. 弟子规,圣人训 学生的规矩,是圣人的训诲。 "The Rules for Students" are the Sage’s teachings.
2. 首孝弟1, 次谨信 首先要对父母好注2 和对长者尊敬,然后要恭谨注3 和诚信。 First be good to parents note 2 and respect elders; next be reverent note 3 and trustworthy.
3. 泛爱众,而亲仁 广泛地爱众人;而且亲近仁人。 Love everyone and become close with the kind-hearted.
4. 有余力,则学文 如果有剩余的力量,就学习书本。 If there’s energy left over, then study books.
5. 右总叙 右边 (以上) 是总结。 To the right (the preceding) is the summary.


6.


父母呼,应勿缓


父母呼唤时,回应不要缓慢。




When parents call, don’t be slow to answer.
7. 父母命,行勿懒 父母发出命令时就要执行,不要懒惰。 When parents give an order, act, don’t be lazy.
8. 父母教,须敬听 父母教导时,要恭敬地听。 When parents teach, one must listen respectfully.
9. 父母责,須我承 父母责备时,我要承受(接受)。 When parents reprimand, one must accept.
10. 冬则溫,夏则清 冬天要温暖,夏天要清凉。注4 In winter be warm; in summer be cool.note 4
11. 晨则省,昏则定 早晨要省察自己,黄昏要安定下来。注5 In the morning think over your conduct; in the evening settle down.note 5
12. 出必告,返必面 出外必定告诉父母,回来必定见父母一面。 When leaving one must tell one’s parents; upon returning one must see one's parents face-to face.
13. 居有常,业无变 起居有定时,事业不改变。 There should be regularity in one’s daily life, and no change in one’s career.
14. 事虽小,勿擅为 虽然是小事,都不能任意擅为。 Though a matter may be small, don’t act arbitrarily.
15. 苟擅为,子道亏 如果任意擅为,儿子应该遵循的正道便亏损了。 If one acts arbitrarily, the code that a son ought to follow gets damaged.
16. 物虽小,勿私藏 东西虽小,不要自私地藏起来。 Though a thing may be small, don’t selfishly hoard it.
17. 苟私藏,亲心伤 如果自私地藏起来,父母就会伤心。 If one selfishly hoards, the parents’ hearts will be hurt.
18. 亲所好,力为具 父母所喜欢的,就努力去拥有。 What parents like, make an effort to possesss.
19. 亲所惡,谨为去 父母所厌恶的,就谨慎地把它清除掉。 What parents despise, carefully get rid of.
20. 身有伤,貽亲忧 身體损伤了,令父母担忧。 Injury to one’s body brings parents worry.
21. 德有伤,貽亲羞 品德损伤了,令父母羞耻。 Injury to one’s character brings parents shame.
22. 亲爱我,孝何难 如果父母爱我,行孝(对父母好)并不困难。 When parents love me, it is easy to be good to parents.
23. 亲憎我,孝方贤 父母憎恶我而我仍然行孝,才是真正的贤德。 When parents detest me, then it’s truly virtuous to be good to parents.
24. 亲有过,谏使更 父母有过失,要劝谏他们,使他们变更。 When parents are doing something that’s wrong, counsel them to make them change.
25. 怡吾色,柔吾声 我的面色要愉快,我的声音要温柔。 Make my expression pleasant, and soften my voice.
26. 谏不入,悅復谏 如果劝谏不被接纳,父母心情愉快时再劝谏。 If the counsel is not accepted, wait until parents are happy then counsel them again.
27. 号泣隨,撻无怨 再跟着下来就是号哭,就算被鞭挞也不埋怨。 Weeping and wailing should follow, and beatings are borne without complaint.
28. 亲有疾,药先尝 父母有疾病,吃的药我要先尝试(看看它是否煮得恰当)。 When parents fall ill, one tastes the medicine first (to see if it's been brewed to the proper degree),
29. 晝夜侍,不离床 日夜都侍候,不离开床边。 And attend day and night, not leaving the bed.
30. 喪三年,常悲咽 守丧期三年,常常悲伤地啼咽。注6 One mourns for thee years, often sobbing sadly.note 6
31. 居处变,酒色绝 居住的地方改变,谢绝喝酒和女色。 The place of living should change, and one should abstain from wine and sex.
32. 喪尽礼,祭尽誠 丧礼做尽礼节,祭拜致尽诚恳。 At the funeral there should be the utmost decorum; at memorial services there should be the utmost sincerity.
33. 侍死者,如事生 侍奉死者,好像侍奉在生的一样。 Serve the dead like serving the living.
34. 兄道友,弟道恭 兄长应该友善,弟弟应该恭敬。 The proper way for the older brother is friendliness; the way for the younger brother is respect.
35. 兄弟睦,孝在中 兄弟的和睦便是孝(对父母好)了。 When brothers are harmonious, that is in itself being good to parents.
36. 财物轻,怨何生 看轻财物,怨忿就不会产生。 When money and material things are taken lightly, how can resentment arise?
37. 言语忍,愤自泯 言语忍让,愤怒就自然会泯没。 When words are tolerated, anger naturally dissipates.
38. 或饮食,或坐走 无论是饮食、就坐或走路, In eating and drinking, and in walking and sitting down,
39. 长者先,幼者後 长者行先,年幼者行后。 The elder person goes first; the junior person goes after.
40. 长呼人,即代叫 长者呼唤人,就立即代他叫唤。 When an elder is calling someone, immediately call that person for the elder.
41. 人不在,己先到 如果叫的人不在,就自己先报到。 If that person is not there, go to the elder yourself.
42. 称尊长,勿呼名 称呼尊长,不要叫名字。 When addressing a respected elder, don’t call him by name.
43. 对尊长,勿见能 在尊长面前,不要炫耀自己。 In front of a respected elder, don’t show off.
44. 路遇长,疾趨揖 路上遇到长者,要赶快上前鞠揖。 When meeting an elder on the road, quickly go up and bow.
45. 长无言,退恭立 长者没话说,就退开,恭敬地站立。 If the elder has nothing to say, retreat and stand respectfully.
46. 骑下马,乘下车 骑马时要下马,坐车时要下车。 Get off if riding a horse, get out if in a car.
47. 过犹待,百步余 长者走过去了,要仍然等待,直至他走了百余步。 Wait even after the elder passes, for a hundred steps or more.
48. 长者立,幼者立 长者站立,幼者就要站立。 When the elder person stands, the junior person stands.
49. 长者坐,命乃坐 长者坐下,幼者要等待长者命令才坐下。 When the elder person sits, only upon being ordered does the junior person sit.
50. 尊长前,声要低 尊长前面,说话声音要低。 In front of a respected elder, one’s voice has to be low,
51. 低下闻,为非宜 但是低到不能听闻就不适宜。 But if it’s too low to be heard, then that’s not suitable.
52. 进必趨,退必迟 进去见长者要赶快,离开长者时要迟慢。 Going into an elder one must hurry; leaving an elder one must be slow.
53. 问起对,視勿移 长者问话就站起来作应对,视线不要移动。 When asked a question one rises and answers, without moving one’s gaze.
54. 事诸父,如事父 侍候各个父辈的长者,好像侍候父亲一样。 Serve the elders of your father's generation like serving your father.
55. 事诸兄,如事兄 侍候各个兄辈的长者,好像侍候兄长(哥哥)一样。 Serve the elders of your big brother's generation like serving your big brother.
56. 右入则孝出则弟 右边 (以上) 是进入家里就行孝(对父母好),走出家外就要对长者尊敬。 To the right (the preceding) is being good to parents inside the family and being respectful to elders outside.


57.


朝起早,夜眠迟


早晨早些起来,晚上迟些才睡觉。注7




In the morning rise early; at night go to sleep late.note 7
58. 老易至,惜此时 老年很容易到来,要珍惜这时刻。 Old age arrives readily; value this time.
59. 晨必盥,兼漱口 早晨必定洗手和漱口。 In the morning one must wash the hands, plus rinse the mouth.
60. 便溺回,輒淨手 大小便回来,必定把手弄干净。 After returning from urination and defecation, always clean the hands.
61. 冠必正,紐必結 帽子必定端正,纽子必定扣起来。 The hat must be on straight; the buttons must be done up.
62. 袜与履,俱緊切 袜子和鞋子,都要穿得紧切。 The socks and shoes should all be on snugly.
63. 置冠服,有定位 放置帽子和衣服,有既定的地方。 For putting hats and clothes, there should be set places.
64. 勿乱顿,致汗穢 不要胡乱放,引致汗积污秽。 Don’t set them down in a disorderly manner, making a sweaty mess.
65. 衣贵洁,不贵华 衣服可贵的是清洁,不是华丽; In clothes value cleanliness, not fanciness.
66. 上循分,下称家 要遵循自己的身份,也要适合家庭的经济情况。注8 First, follow one’s station in life; second, suit the family’s financial situation.note 8
67. 对饮食,勿揀選 对饮食不要挑剔揀選。 With food and drink don’t be picky.
68. 食适可,勿过则 进食适可而止,不要吃过多。 Eat just enough; don’t eat excessively.
69. 年方少,勿饮酒 年纪还小,不要喝酒。 While still young, don't drink alcohol.
70. 饮酒醉,最为醜 喝酒醉了,样子是最醜的。 Being drunk is most ugly.
71. 步从容,立端正 走路要不荒不忙,站立要端正。 Walk relaxed; stand straight.
72. 揖深圆,拜恭敬 鞠揖要又深又圆,跪下叩拜要恭敬。 Bow deep and round; when kneeling to pay homage do so reverently.
73. 勿践阈,勿跛倚 不要踏门槛,不要一只腿倚靠着站立。 Don’t step on the threshold; don’t stand leaning on one leg.
74. 勿箕踞,勿搖卑 不要坐在地上两腿伸直打开,不要摇摆下部。 Don’t sit with legs straight and apart; don’t wave the bottom.
75. 緩揭帘,勿有声 慢慢地把帘子揭起,不要有声。 Open curtains slowly, without noise.
76. 寬转弯,勿觸稜 宽阔地转弯,不要觸碰到稜角。 Turn turns widely, without hitting the corners.
77. 执虛器,如执盈 拿着空的器具,好像拿着满的一样。 Hold empty vessels like holding full ones.
78. 入虛室,如有人 走入空的房室,好像有人在里面一样。 Enter empty rooms as if someone is there.
79. 事勿忙,忙多錯 事情不要急忙,急忙就会很多错误。 Don’t hurry when doing things, or there will be many mistakes.
80. 勿畏难,勿轻问 不要害怕困难,不要轻视发问。注9 Don’t fear difficulties; don’t look down upon asking questions.note 9
81. 斗鬧场,绝毋近 打斗鬧事的场地,绝勿走近。 Scenes of fighting and disturbances, do not ever go near.
82. 邪僻事,绝勿声 邪恶歪僻的东西,绝勿说出来。 Evil deviant things, don’t ever say.
83. 将入門,问誰存 即将进入门户时,要问谁在里面。 When about to enter through a door, ask who is there.
84. 将上堂,声必揚 即将进入厅堂时,要声音响亮地报到。 When about to enter a hall, one must call out one's arrival.
85. 人问誰,对以名 别人问你是谁,就把名字告诉他。 When people ask who is there, answer with your name.
86. 吾与我,不分明 只说是我,是不够明白的。 “Me” and “I” don’t make anything clear.
87. 用人物,須明求 用别人的物件,须要明确地求问。 When using other people’s things, one must clearly ask.
88. 倘不问,即为偷 倘若不先求问,那就是偷。 If one doesn’t ask, then it is stealing.
89. 借人物,及时还 借别人的物件,及时归还。 When borrowing other people’s things, return them on time.
90. 人借物,有勿慳 别人向你借物件,有的话不要悭吝。 When other people borrow things from you, if you have them don’t be stingy.
91. 凡出言,信为先 凡说话时,诚信第一。 Whenever one speaks, trustworthiness comes first.
92. 诈与妄,奚可焉 骗诈和妄乱说话,怎可以呢?。 Lying and absurd wild talk, how can one engage in such things?
93. 话说多,不如少 话说得多,不如说少些。 Talking a lot is not as good as talking less.
94. 惟其是,勿佞巧 只说事实,不要说虚浮不实的花言巧语。 Say only what is true, don’t be glib or tricky.
95. 刻薄词,秽汙词 刻薄的言语,肮脏的言语, Cutting and disdainful words, dirty and filthy words,
96. 市井气,切戒之 鄙俗的风气,一定要戒除。 Such vulgar airs, definitely get rid of them.
97. 见未真,勿轻言 看到的东西还未确定是否真实时,不要轻率地发出言论。 When still unsure of what you are seeing, do not lightly speak on it.
98. 知未的,勿轻传 知道的东西还未确定是否正确时,不要轻率地传播。 When still unsure of what you know, don’t lightly spread it.
99. 事非宜,勿轻诺 事情的条件还未适当时,不要轻率地承诺。 If conditions aren’t favorable, don’t lightly promise.
100. 苟轻诺,进退錯 如果轻率地承诺了,前进去做和退却不做都犯错误。 If one lightly promises, then both going forward to do it and backing off from doing it are wrong.
101. 凡道字,重且舒 凡说话时,字句都要庄重和舒松。 Whenever you say something, say it with weight and relaxation,
102. 勿急疾,勿模糊 不要急速,不要模糊。 Not hurriedly or quickly, nor blurred and unintelligibly.
103. 彼说长,此说短 这个说长,那个说短。 This one gossips about this; that one gossips about that;
104. 不关己,莫闲管 不关涉到自己,就不要多管闲事。 If it doesn’t concern yourself, don’t participate.
105. 见人善,即思齐 见到别人优良,就要想想怎样追上。 On seeing others being good, think of equaling them.
106. 纵去远,以漸跻 纵使相距很远,可以渐渐进步。 Even if far below them, you can gradually improve.
107. 见人惡,即內省 见到别人惡劣,就要检查自己。 On seeing others being bad, inspect yourself.
108. 有则改,无加警 如果自己有就要改正,没有就要加强警惕。 If like them then correct it; if not then be vigilant.
109. 惟德学,惟才艺 只有品德和学问,只有才能和技艺, Only in virtue and learning, and in ability and skill,
110. 不如人,当自励 比不起别人,就应当勉励自己。 If not as good as others, then one should spur oneself on.
111. 若衣服,若环食 如果是衣服、环境、或食用, If it’s in clothing and attire, or housing and food,
112. 不如人,勿生戚 比不起别人,不要悲愁。 That one is not as good as others, don’t be sad.
113. 闻过怒,闻誉樂 如果听到(自己的)过错就愤怒,听到赞颂就高兴, Becoming angry upon hearing (one's own) faults and happy upon hearing praise,
114. 损友来,益友卻 损害你的朋友就会到来,有益于你的朋友就会退却。 Will cause harmful friends to come, and beneficial friends to leave.
115. 闻誉恐,闻过欣 如果听到赞颂就恐惧,听到(自己的)过错就欢欣, Becoming fearful upon hearing praise and happy upon hearing (one's own) faults,
116. 直諒士,漸相亲 正直诚信的人士就会渐渐跟你亲近。 Will cause upright and honest gentlemen to gradually draw close.
117. 无心非,名为錯 无意的过犯,叫做错误。 Doing wrong unintentionally is called making a mistake;
118. 有心非,名为惡 蓄意的过犯,叫做罪恶。 Doing wrong intentionally is called committing an evil.
119. 过能改,归於无 能够改正错过,就等于没有犯。 If one corrects what one has done wrong, then it’s as if it hasn’t happened.
120. 倘掩飾,增一辜 如果掩饰错过,就增加一项罪行。 If one covers up, then one adds to one’s trespass.
121. 右谨而信 右边 (以上) 是既恭谨又诚信。注10 To the right (the preceding) is being reverent and trustworthy.note 10


122.


凡是人,皆須爱


凡是人,都須要爱。


All who are human, one must love.
123. 天同覆,地同載 天空把我们同样地覆盖,土地把我们同样地承载。 Heaven covers us equally; Earth bears us equally.
124. 行高者,名自高 品行高尚的人,名望自然高。 People with high conduct naturally have high reputations;
125. 人所重,非貌高 人们所重视的,并非相貌高贵。 What people value is not high looks.
126. 才大者,望自大 才能大的人,声望自然大。 People with great ability naturally have great fame;
127. 人所服,非言大 人们所佩服的,并非言语大。 What people respect is not great words.
128. 己有能,勿自私 自己有才能的话,不要自私。 If one has ability, one shouldn’t be selfish.
129. 人有能,勿轻訾 别人有才能的话,不要轻易贬低别人。 If other people have ability, one shouldn’t denigrate them.
130. 勿諂富,勿骄贫 不要对富人谄媚,不要对穷人骄傲。 Don’t fawn on the rich; don’t be arrogant to the poor.
131. 勿厌故,勿喜新 不要厌弃故旧的,不要只喜爱新的。 Don’t despise the old; don’t favor the new.
132. 人不闲,勿事搞 别人没空闲,就不要用事情搅扰他。 If people don’t have time, don’t bother them with matters.
133. 人不安,勿话搞 别人不安宁,就不要用说话搅扰他。 If people are not at peace, don’t bother them with words.
134. 人有短,切莫揭 别人有短处,切勿揭露宣扬。 When people have shortcomings, definitely don’t publicize them.
135. 人有私,切莫说 别人有私隐,切勿说出来。 When people have secrets, definitely don’t say them.
136. 道人善,即是善 说别人的善行,就是善行。 Speaking of others’ good deeds is in itself a good deed.
137. 人知之,愈思勉 别人知道了,会感到勉励。 When others learn of it, they become more encouraged.
138. 扬人短,即是惡 传扬别人的短处,就是恶行。 Publicizing other people’s shortcomings is in itself evil.
139. 疾之甚,禍且作 令到别人非常憎恨,而且灾祸会到来。 People hate it very much, and disaster arises.
140. 善相劝,德皆建 大家互相劝勉行善,品德便大家都建立起来。 Admonishing each other to do good builds up everyone’s virtue.
141. 过不规,道兩亏 别人犯错过时你不规劝,道德便双方都亏损。 Not dissuading another from doing wrong damages both parties’ character.
142. 凡取与,贵分晓 凡是给与或拿取,重要的是要把事情说得清楚。 When taking and giving, making everything clear is what's important.
143. 与宜多,取宜少 给与别人适宜多些,拿取于别人适宜少些。注11 It's better to give much and take little.note 11
144. 将加人,先问己 即将把事物加之于别人,要先问问自己。 When about to do unto others, first ask yourself;
145. 己不欲,即速已 如果不想同样的事物加于自己,就立刻停止不做。 If you don’t want it, then stop immediately.
146. 恩欲報,怨欲忘 恩典要报答,仇怨要忘记。 One wants to repay kindness and forget grudges.
147. 報怨短,報恩长 报怨是短,报恩是长 Repaying grudges is short; repaying kindness is long.
148. 待婢仆,身贵端 对待侍婢和仆人,自己是贵端的。注12 In dealing with maids and servants, one is of high station.注12
149. 虽贵端,慈而寬 虽然自己是贵端的,但是要仁慈和宽容。 Though of high station, one must be kind and forgiving.
150. 势服人,心不然 用势力来使别人屈服,别人会心里不服。 Using force to make people submit doesn’t make their hearts submit.
151. 理服人,方无言 用道理来使别人屈服,别人才会没有怨言。 Using reason to make people submit, only then are there no words (of discontent).
152. 同是人,类不齐 同样都是人,但是种类不一样。 All are human, but their types differ.
153. 流俗众,仁者希 庸俗的人众多,仁慈的人稀少。 Most belong to the unrefined; the truly kind-hearted are rare.
154. 果仁者,人多畏 真正仁慈的人,人们多数怕他。 A truly kind-hearted person is feared by most people;
155. 言不讳,色不媚 他的言谈不怕触犯别人,他的容颜不会谄媚别人。 He is not afraid of his words causing offense; his expression is not fawning.
156. 能亲仁,无限好 能够亲近仁慈的人,会得到无限好处。 To be able to become close with the kind-hearted is infinitely good.
157. 德日进,过日少 品德会日益进步,过失会日益减少。 One’s virtue will daily advance; one’s errors will daily lessen.
158. 不亲仁,无限害 不亲近仁慈的人,会带来无限的祸害。 Not becoming close with the kind-hearted is infinitely harmful;
159. 小人进,百事坏 卑鄙低劣的人会进来,什么事情都会败坏。 Lowly people will come and everything will turn bad.
160. 右汎爱眾而亲仁 右边 (以上) 是既广泛地爱人又亲近仁慈的人。 To the right (the preceding) is loving everyone and becoming close with the kind-hearted.


161.


不力行,但学文


如果不努力于行为,只学习书本,




If one doesn’t work hard at conduct, but only studies books,
162. 长浮华,成何人 便会滋长虚浮的华丽,这样会变成怎样的人呢? Then one attains superficial finery—what kind of person is that?
163. 但力行,不学文 只努力于行为,而不学习书本, If one only works hard at conduct, but does not study books,
164. 任己见,昧理真 就会一味凭靠自己的见解,对真理蒙昧。 Then one relies only on one’s own views, and remain ignorant of true reason.
165. 读书法,有三到 读书的办法,有三个到: The way to study requires three things coming together:
166. 心眼口,信皆要 心到、眼到、口到,三样都需要。 Heart, eyes and mouth, are all necessary.
167. 方读此,勿慕彼 刚开始读一本书,就不要想念着另一本。 When you’ve just begun reading one book, don’t yearn for another;
168. 此未終,彼勿起 这本尚未读完,那本不要开始。 When the first book hasn’t been finished, don’t start another one.
169. 寬为限,紧用功 界限要放得寬阔,功夫要用得紧密。 Set wide limits; apply tight efforts.
170. 功夫到,滯塞通 功夫到位,滯塞便会开通。 With proper effort, obstacles will be overcome.
171. 心有疑,隨札记 心里有疑问,就立刻写札记。 When there is doubt, note it down right away,
172. 就人问,求確义 以便问人,寻求正确的意义。 So as to ask people and get the true meaning.
173. 房室清,牆壁淨 房室要清洁,牆壁要干淨。 The room should be clean; the walls, clear;
174. 几案洁,筆硯正 桌子要洁淨,筆和墨硯要摆正。 The desk, spotless; the pen and inkwell, straight.
175. 墨磨偏,心不端 墨磨得有偏差,是因为心里不端正。 If the ink is ground unevenly, the heart is not upright;
176. 字不敬,心先病 字写得不尊敬,是因为心里有病。 If the words are not respectful, the heart has first fallen ill.
177. 列典籍,有定处 列放书本,有固定的地方。 Books should be set out in a regular place.
178. 读看毕,还原处 书本读看完毕,就归还原来的地方, After reading, return them to their original place.
179. 虽有急,卷束齐 虽然有急事,也要先把书本卷束整齐。 Though there may be an urgent matter, roll and tie them properly,
180. 有缺坏,就补之 如果有缺坏,就立刻修补。 And if there’s damage, repair it immediately.
181. 非圣书,屏勿視 不是圣贤的书本,摒弃它,不要看。 Books not of the sages, reject them; don’t look.
182. 蔽聪明,坏心志 它会掩蔽你的聪明,损坏你的心志。 They cloud the intellect and corrupt one’s heart and aspiration.
183. 勿自暴,勿自弃 不要自暴自弃(不要暴虐自己,不要抛弃自己)。 Don’t abuse yourself; don’t give up on yourself.
184. 圣与賢,可馴致 圣洁和贤德,可以渐渐地达到。注13 What is saintly and virtuous, can be gradually attained.note 13
185. 右行有余力则以学文 右边 (以上) 是:致力于行为后还有剩余的力量,就用来学习书本。 To the right (the preceding) is: after achieving right conduct, if there’s energy left over then use it to study books.
186. 弟子规終 弟子规終。 Student’s Rules end.




Notes
      - 文言文翻译的原则 - Principles of Translating Classical Chinese
- 关于各《弟子规》网站之间的文本差异



- On Textual Discrepancies Among the Different Di Zi Gui Websites

1. ^ “弟”这里读作 "ti" 而不是 "di",跟“悌”通。 1. ^ Here the character is pronounced "ti" and not "di", and is the same as the character .
2. ^ “孝”应该译为“对父母好”而不是“子女的虔诚”。(详) 2. ^ Xiao should be translated as "being good to parents", not "filial piety". (Details)
3. ^ “谨”这里的意思是“恭谨”,并非“谨慎”。《弟子规》所教授的恭谨,是一个崇高的心态,虽包括但远远超越了谨慎。(详)

3. ^ Jin here means "reverent" as in gongjin, not "careful" as in jinshen. What Di Zi Gui teaches is a lofty state of mind, one that includes but is far above merely being "careful". (Details)
4. ^ 很多文本用冰字旁的“凊”而不是水字旁的“清”,那么句子就变为把父母的床被温暖起来或清凉下去。(详)

4. ^ Qing with the "ice radical" instead of Qing with the "water radical" is used in many texts; the sentence would then be referring to warming up and cooling the parents' bed. (Details)
5. ^ 很多学者把这句解释为“早上向父母问安,晚上为父母整顿床被”。(详)

5. ^ Many scholars take this sentence to mean asking after parents in the morning and putting in order the parents' bed in the evening. (Details)
6. ^ 我认为,正式守丧三年太多了。《孝经》里孔子只说过“丧不过三年”而并不是丧必要三年。而且孔子同时说,“无以死伤生”。守丧三年之长很多时误事,变成了以死伤生:文天祥就是刚考了状元,被皇帝看中,正要重用以改革时弊的时候,父亲过世,便要辞职回乡守孝三年,回来时已是奸臣揽权,蒙古侵略,宋朝正在走向灭亡了。正式守孝可能三至十二个月就够了。

6. ^ I think formally mourning for three years is too long. In The Classic of Xiao, Confucius said that "mourning should be no longer than three years", not necessarily for three years. Moreover, he said at the same time "not to let dying injure the living". Formally mourning for three years can ruin important matters, such that dying injure the living. For example, Wen Tian-Xiang had just become First Imperial Laureate at the Civil Service Exams and was going to be entrusted by the Emperor with government reform when the father died. Wen had to resign and go home to mourn for three years. When he returned corrupt ministers had firm control, the Mongols were invading, and the Song Empire was heading towards extinction. Perhaps three to twelve months of formal mourning is enough.
7. ^ 健康起见,我认为这句应该改为“朝起早,夜即眠”。(详)

7. ^ For reasons of health, I think this verse should be changed to: "In the morning rise early; at night go immediately to sleep." (Details)
8. ^ “称家”是特别用语,意思是“适合家庭的经济情况,出自《礼记·檀弓上》:“子游问丧具,夫子曰:称家之有亡(无)。”

8. ^ Cheng jia 称家 is a special term meaning "to suit the family's financial situation". The term comes from the chapter "Tan Gong - First Part" in the ancient classic Li Ji (Book of Etiquette) where, in answer to a question about burial articles, Confucius said, "They should suit the family's financial situation."
9. ^ 我认为“轻”这里是作动词用,是“轻视”的意思,而不是副词即“轻易”,因为那样句子的意思就会变成“不要轻易发问”,而当然我们希望学生们,其实所有人们,都多一点发问。

9. ^ I consider qing to be a verb here meaning "to look down upon" as in qing shi. I don't think qing is being used as an adverb as in qing yi i.e. "lightly", since that would make the verse mean "don't lightly ask", and of course we would like students, actually all persons, to ask more questions.
10. ^ 如上注3,“谨”这里的意思是“恭谨”,并非“谨慎”。(详)

10. ^ As in note 3 above, jin here means "reverent" as in gongjin, not "careful" as in jinshen. (Details)
11. ^ 我认为,虽然想法是慷慨,用意良好,但是“与宜多,取宜少”老是给别人多,给自己少,是不公平的,不适宜市场的运作,违反等价交换的原则。社会的本质是互利、双赢,所以,我认为应该把这句改为“与如多, 得不少”。(详)

11. ^ I think that, although the underlying idea is a laudable generosity and an entirely good intention, "better to give more and take less" is unfair, is not suited to the operation of markets and is contrary to the principle of exchange of equal values. The essence of society is mutual benefit and "win-win"; therefore I think this verse should be changed to: "If one gives much, one won't receive little". (Details)
12. ^ “身贵端”:今日“端贵的主人”和“下贱的婢仆”那种想法已经被雇主在双方自愿的情况下聘请雇员这个概念取代。雇员是在雇主的指令下工作,来换取金钱的。所以,除了金钱,雇员从雇主那里所需要获取的,就是明确的规格和指令。我提议把这句改为“待雇员,规令明”。

另外,雇主跟雇员这个人伦关系要求雇主诚信交易,包括准时和依照原先议定支付薪酬。所以下一句便是:“薪准时,照议定。”


12. ^ Shen Gui Duan 身贵端 or "of high station": today this concept of a master of "high station" and a servant of "low station" has been replaced by the concept of an employer hiring an employee on the basis of the free will of both parties. The employee performs work under the employer's direction in exchange for money. Therefore, besides money, what the employer owes to the employee are clear standards and directions. I suggest changing this verse to "In dealing with employees, standards and directions must be clear."

Also, the relationship-defined obligations of employer to employee demand that the employer deals with the employee on the basis of trustworthiness, honesty and integrity, and that includes paying on time and according to the original agreement. So the next verse should be: "Pay on time, follow the agreement."

13. ^ “驯”这里是古代用法,“渐渐”的意思。见《辞海》,上海1989年版,第1284页。

13. ^ Xun here is used as one of its older meanings: "gradually". See Ci Hai, Shanghai 1989, p. 1284.


 
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